Transition Management Consulting, Inc.

Interim Executive and Transition Research Reference List

During her research, Jackie Eder-Van Hook undertook a massive literature review intent on uncovering key aspects of the academic and practitioner literature related to interim executives and transition. The list below contains those references. Jackie offers this list in the spirit of collaboration and hopes future researchers will not have to reinvent the wheel.

If you believe that a critical piece of literature is missing from the list, please contact Jackie and let her know.    


Ackerman, L. S. (1982). Transition management: An in-depth look at managing complex change.  Organizational Dynamics, 11(1), 46-66. doi: 10.1016/0090-2616(82)90042-0

Ackerman, L. S. (1986). Change management: Basics for training. Training and Development Journal, pp. 67-68. 

Adams, J. D., Hayes, J., & Hopson, B. (1976). Transition: Understanding and managing personal change. London, England: Martin Robertson.

Adams, T. (2004). Capturing the power of leadership change: Using executive transition management to strengthen organizational capacity. Executive Transitions Monograph Series, 1.  Baltimore, MD: The Annie E. Casey Foundation. 

Allison, M. (2002). Into the fire: Boards and executive transitions. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 12(4). 

Anderson, L. A., & Anderson, D. (2001). The change leader’s roadmap: How to navigate your organization’s transformation. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

Argyris, C. (1976). Single-loop and double-loop models in research on decision making. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21(3), 363-375. doi: 10.2307/2391848

American Society of Association Executives. (2012). ASAE Compensation Study, 2012. Washington, DC. 

Avelino, F., & Rotmans, J. (2009). Power in transition: An interdisciplinary framework to study power in relation to structural change. European Journal of Social Theory, 12(4), 543-569. doi: 10.1177/1368431009349830

Ballinger, G. A., Lehman, D. W., & Schoorman, F. D. (2010). Leader–member exchange and turnover before and after succession events. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 113, 25–36. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2010.04.003

Ballinger, G. A., & Marcel, J. J. (2010). The use of an interim CEO during succession episodes and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 31(3), 262-283. doi: 10.1002/smj.808

Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational leadership (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Beckhard, R. (1969). Organization development: Strategies and models. Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley. 

Beckhard, R., & Harris, R. T. (1987). Organizational transitions: Managing complex change (2nd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 

Bell, J., Moyers, R., & Wolfred, T. (2006). Daring to lead 2006: A national study of nonprofit executive leadership. San Francisco, CA: Compass Point Nonprofit Services.

Block, P. (1996). Stewardship. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.

Brammer, L. M., & Abrego, P. J. (1981). Intervention strategies for coping with transitions. The Counseling Psychologist, 9(2), 19-36. doi: 10.1177/001100008100900203

Bridges, W. (1980). Transitions: Making sense of life’s changes. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Bridges, W. (1988). Surviving corporate transitions: Rational management in a world of mergers, start-ups, takeovers, layoffs, divestitures, deregulation and new technologies. Mill Valley, CA: William Bridges & Associates.

Bruns, J., & Kabst, R. (2005). Interim-management: A paradox for leadership research? Management Revue, 16(4), 512-524. 

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Carman, J. G., Leland, S. M., & Wilson, A. J. (2007). Crisis in leadership or failure to plan? Insights from Charlotte, North Carolina. Nonprofit and Management Leadership, 21(1), 93-111. doi: 10.1002/nml.20014

Chapman, T., & Vogelsang, J. (2005). Executive director transitions: An organization development approach. Support Center for Nonprofit Management, 9(1), 2-8. 

Chick, N., & Meleis, A. I. (1986). Transitions: A nursing concern. In P. L. Chinn (Ed.), Nursing research methodology. Boulder, CO: Aspen Publications.

Collins, J. C. (2001). Good to great. New York, NY: HarperCollins.

Conger, J. A., & Nadler, D. A. (2004). When CEOs step up to fail. MIT Sloan Management Review, 45(3), 50-56. 

Cornelius, M., Moyers, R., & Bell, J. (2011). Daring to lead 2011: A national study of nonprofit executive leadership. San Francisco, CA: CompassPoint Nonprofit Services and the Meyer Foundation.

Coyne, K. P., & Coyne, E. J. (2007). Surviving your new CEO. Harvard Business Review, 85(5), 62-69. Retrieved from

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Dai, G., DeMeuse, K. P., & Gaeddert, D. (2011). Onboarding externally hired executives: Avoiding derailment – accelerating contribution. Journal of Management & Organization, 17(2), 165-178. doi:10.5172/jmo.2011.17.2.165

Dalton, D. R., & Kesner, I. F. (1983). Inside/outside succession and organizational size: The pragmatics of executive replacement. Academy of Management Journal, 26(4), 736-742. doi: 10.2307/255919

Dey, L. (1993). Qualitative data analysis: A user-friendly guide. New York, NY: Routledge.

Deyo, R. A. (2002). Cascade effects of medical technology. Annual Review of Public Health, 23, 23-44 doi: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.23.092101.134534

Donaldson, S. I., & Grant-Vallone, E. J. (2002). Understanding self-report bias in organizational behavior research. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17(2), 245-262. doi: 10.1023/A:1019637632584

Eder-Van Hook, J. L. (2011). Examples of executive departures by anticipated duration and type. Unpublished work. Transition Management Consulting: Washington, DC. 

Elsner, R., & Farrands, B. (2006). Lost in transition: How business leaders can successfully take charge in new roles. London, England: Marshall Cavendish. 

Erikson, E. H. (1959/1980). Identity and the life cycle. London, England: W.W. Norton. 

Everley, M. L. (1993). Presidential change: Interim administrations in higher education (Doctoral dissertation). University of Oklahoma, Norman. Available from ProQuest Dissertation and Theses database. (UMI No. 9409253)

Farquhar, K. W. (1991). Leadership in limbo: Organization dynamics during interim administrations. Public Administration Review, 51(3), 202-210. doi: 10.2307/976944

Farquhar, K. W. (1995). Not just understudies: The dynamics of short-term leadership. Human Resource Management, 34(1), 51-70. doi: 389599501

Farquhar, K. W. (1996). Learning from the challenges of nonroutine executive transitions. Academy of Management Proceedings, pp. 328-332. doi: 10.5465/AMBPP.1996.4980878

Freud, S. (1910). The origin and development of psychoanalysis. American Journal of Psychology, 21(2), 181–218. Retrieved from

Friedman, S. D., & Olk, P. (1995). Four ways to choose a CEO: Crown heir, horse race, coup d’etat, and comprehensive search. Human Resource Management, 34(1), 141-164. doi: 10.1002/hrm.3930340109

Froelich, K., McKee, G., & Rathge, R. (2011). Succession planning in nonprofit organizations. Unpublished manuscript. New York: The City University of New York. Retrieved May 6, 2011 from 

Gabarro, J. (1987). The dynamics of taking charge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press.

Gestalt Institute of Cleveland (GIC). (n.d.). Cycle of experience. Cleveland, OH: Gestalt Institute of Cleveland. 

Gibelman, M., & Gelman, S. R. (2002). On the departure of a chief executive officer. Administration in Social Work, 26(2), 63-82. doi: 10.1300/J147v2602_04 

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gilmore, T. N. (1988). Making a leadership change: How organizations and leaders can handle leadership transitions successfully. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Gilmore, T. N. (1990). Effective leadership during organizational transitions. Nursing Economics, 8(3), 135-141. 

Goler, R. I. (2003). Making the most of the internal interim directorship. Journal for Nonprofit Management, 7(1), 56-66.

Gordon, G. E., & Rosen, N. (1981). Critical factors in leadership succession. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 27(2), 227-254. doi: 10.1016/0030-5073(81)90048-9

Goss, D., & Bridson, J. (1998). Understanding interim management. Human Resource Management Journal, 8(4), 37-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-8583.1998.tb00179.x

Greenleaf, R. (1977). Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. New York, NY: Paulist Press. 

Gripe, A. G. (1997). The interim pastor’s manual (Rev. ed.). Louisville, KY: Geneva Press. 

Hall, D. (1995). Unplanned executive transitions and the dance of the subidentities. Human Resource Management, 34(1), 71-92. 

Hambrick, D. C., & Mason, P. A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 193-206. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1984.4277628

Heifetz, R. (1994). Leadership without easy answers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Heifetz, R., Grashow, A., & Linsky, M. (2009). The practice of adaptive leadership: Tools and tactics for changing your organization and the world. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.

Herman, D. (2009). Basic elements of narrative. West Sussex, England: Wiley-Blackwell.

Hill, C. P. (2003). The interim executive as transition leader: Stories of management consultants in health care organizations in transition. (Doctoral dissertation.) Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, CA. Available from ProQuest Dissertation and Theses database. Retrieved from 

Hopson, B., & Adams, J. (1976). Towards an understanding of transition: Defining some boundaries of transition dynamics. Transition, pp. 3–25. 

Inkson, K., Heising, A., & Rousseau, D. M. (2001). The interim manager: Prototype of the 21st-century worker? Human Relations, 54(3), 259-284. doi: 10.1177/0018726701543001

Josselson, R. (1995). Narrative and psychological understanding. Psychiatry, 58(4), 330-43.

Josselson, R. (2006). Narrative research and the challenge of accumulating knowledge. Narrative Inquiry 16(1), 3-10. doi:10.1075/ni.16.1.03jos

Karlsson, P., & Neilson, G. L. (2009). CEO succession 2008: Stability in the storm. Strategy + Business, 2(55). Retrieved on June 29, 2010, from

Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1966). The social psychology of organizations. New York, NY: Wiley. 

Kirchner, M. (2000). Gestalt therapy theory: An overview. Gestalt!, 4(3). Retrieved online January 6, 2012 from

Knowles, H. P., & Saxberg, B. O. (1988). Organizational leadership planned & unplanned change: A systems approach to organizational viability. Futures, 20(3), 252-265. Retrieved from doi: 10.1016/0016-3287(88)90081-X

Kübler-Ross, E. (1969). On death and dying. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Levinson, D. J. (1978). The seasons of a man’s life. New York, NY: Knopf.

Levinson, D. J. (1996). The seasons of a woman’s life. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Levy, A., & Merry, U. (1986). Organizational transformation: Approaches, strategies, theories. New York, NY: Praeger. 

Lewin, K. (Ed.). (1947/2008). Quasi stationary equilibria and the problem of permanent change. In W. W. Burke, D. G. Lake, & J. W. Paine (Ed.), Organization change: A comprehensive reader. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lichtenstein, B. B. (2000). Self-organized transitions: A pattern amid the chaos of transformative change. Academy of Management Executive, 14(4), 128-141. doi: 10.5465/AME.2000.3979821

Liddle, J., Carlson, G., & McKenna, K. (2004). Using a matrix in life transition research. Qualitative Health Research, 14(10), 1396. doi: 10.1177/1049732304268793

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1988). Criteria for assessing naturalistic inquiries as reports. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Retrieved from

Loorbach, D., & Rotmans, J. (2009). The practice of transition management: Examples and lessons from four distinct cases. Futures, 42(3), 237-246. doi: 10.1016/j.futures.2009.11.009

Lucier, C., Spiegel, E., & Schuyt, R. (2002). Why CEOs fall: The causes and consequences of turnover at the top. Strategy + Business, 3(28). Retrieved on June 29, 2010 from

Lynch, C. , & Daniels, V. (2000). Patterns of relationships. Unpublished paper. Rohnert Park, CA: Sonoma State University. Retrieved March 4, 2012 from

Manderscheid, S. V., & Ardichvili, A. (2008). A conceptual model for leadership transition. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 20(3-4), 113-129. doi: 10.1002/piq.20006

Martin, C. K. (2006). Understanding the roles, organizational value, and practices regarding interim university presidents: A study examining interim presidencies from the perspective of those who have been an interim university president multiple times (Doctoral dissertation). Brigham Young University, Provo, UT. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI 1264617841) 

Maslow, A. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Morgan, G. (1998). Images of organization. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Nadler, D. (2005). Confessions of a trusted counselor. Harvard Business Review, 83(9), 68-77. Retrieved from

Nadler, D. A., Shaw, R. B., & Walton, A. E. (1995). Discontinuous change: Leading organizational transformation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

National Center for Charitable Statistics.  (2013). Quick facts about nonprofits. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Retrieved from on March 1, 2013.

Nicholson, R. S. (Ed.). (1998). Temporary shepherds: A congregational handbook of interim ministry. Herndon, VA: The Alban Institute.

Niendorf, B., & Beck, K. (2008). Good to great, or just good? Academy of Management Perspectives, 22(4), 13-20. doi: 10.5465/AMP.2008.35590350

Olson, E. E., & Eoyang, G. H. (2001). Facilitating organization change: Lessons from complexity science. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

Pearson, C. M., & Mitroff, I. I. (1993). From crisis prone to crisis prepared: A framework for crisis management. Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 48-59. doi: 10.5465/AME.1993.9409142058

Perls, F., Hefferline, R., & Goodman, P. (1951/1994). Gestalt therapy: Excitement and growth in the human personality. Highland, NY: Gestalt Journal Press.

Purser, R. E., & Petranker, J. (2004). Unfreezing the future: Exploring the dynamic of time in organizational change. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 41(2), 182-203. doi: 10.1177/0021886304268157

Reid, T. (1850). Essays on the intellectual powers of man. Cambridge, MA: John Bartlett. Retrieved from

Resnick, B. G., & Smunt, T. L. (2008). From Good to Great to . .. Academy Of Management Perspectives, 22(4), 6-12. doi:10.5465/AMP.2008.35590349

Roediger, III, H. L., & Gallo, D. A. (2002). Processes affecting accuracy and distortion in memory: An overview. In M. L. Eisen, G. S. Goodman & J. A. Quas (Eds.), Memory and suggestibility in the forensic interview (pp. 3-28). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 

Rosenzweig, P. M. (2007). The halo effect and the eight other business delusions that deceive managers. New York, NY: Free Press.

Rotmans, J., Kemp, R., & van Asselt, M. (2005). More evolution than revolution: Transition management in public policy. Foresight, 3(1), 15-31. doi: 10.1108/14636680110803003

Rotmans, J., & Loorbach, D. (2009). Complexity and transition management. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 13(2), 184-196. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-9290.2009.00116.x

Santora, J., Caro, M., & Sarros, J. (2007). Succession in nonprofit organizations: An insider/outsider perspective. S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal, 72(4), 26. 

Santora, J., & Sarros, J. (2008). Interim leadership in a nonprofit organization: A case study. The Business Review, Cambridge, 11(2), 66. Retrieved from

Santora, J. C., & Sarros, J. C. (2001a). CEO succession in nonprofit community-based organizations: Is there room for insiders at the top? Career Development International, 6(2), 107-110. doi: 10.1108/13620430110383429

Santora, J. C., & Sarros, J. C. (2001b). CEO tenure in nonprofit community-based organizations: A multiple case study. Career Development International, 6(1), 56. doi: 10.1108/13620430110381043

Schlossberg, N. (1981). A model for analyzing human adaptation to transition. The Counseling Psychologist, 9(2), 2-18. doi: 10.1177/001100008100900202

Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York, NY: Doubleday.

Smith, L. T. (1999). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. London, England: Zed Books.

Smith, S. S. (2010). Complexities of pastoral change and transition in the megachurches of the Baptist General Conference, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, and Presbyterian Church (USA) (Doctoral dissertation). Luther Seminary, St. Paul, MN. Available from ProQuest Dissertation and Theses database. Retrieved from

Sofaer, S. (1999). Qualitative methods: What are they and why use them? Health Services Research, 34(5), 1101-1118. 

Sonnenfeld, J. A. (1988). The hero’s farewell. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Sturges, J. E., & Hanrahan, K. J. (2004). Comparing telephone and face-to-face qualitative interviewing: A research note. Qualitative Research, 4, 107-118. doi: 10.1177/1468794104041110

Tannenbaum, R., & Hanna, R. W. (1985). Holding on, letting go: Understanding a neglected perspective on change. In R. Tannenbaum, N. Margulies & Fred Massarik & Associates (Eds.). Human development systems: New perspectives on people and organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Vancil, R. F. (1987). A look at CEO succession. Harvard Business Review, 65(2), 107-117. Retrieved from

van de Kerkhof, M., & Wieczorek, A. (2005). Learning and stakeholder participation in transition processes towards sustainability: Methodological considerations. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 72(6), 733-747. doi: 10.1016/j.techfore.2004.10.002

van Gennep, A. (1960/2004). Rites of passage. London, England: Routledge. 

von Bertalanffy, L. (1950). The theory of open systems in physics and biology. Science, 111(2872), 23–29. doi: 10.1126/science.111.2872.23

Vroom, V. H., & Jago, A. G. (2007). Role of situation in leadership. American Psychologist, 62(1), 17-24. doi: 0.1037/0003-066X.62.1.17

Watkins, M. (2003). The first 90 days: Critical strategies for new leaders at all levels. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 

Weeks, M. F., Kulka, R. A., Lessler, J. T., & Whitmore, R. W. (1983). Personal versus telephone surveys for collecting household health data at the local level. American Journal of Public Health, 73(12), 1389-1394. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.73.12.1389

Weick, K. E., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Organizational change and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 361-386. 

Wolfred, T. (2009a). Building leaderful organizations: Succession planning for nonprofits. Executive Transition Monograph Series (Vol. 6). Baltimore, MD: Annie E. Casey Foundation.

Wolfred, T. (2009b). Managing executive transitions: A guide for nonprofits. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance.

Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research. Design and methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Zilber, T. B., Tuval-Mashiach, R., & Lieblich, A. (2008). Embedded narrative: Navigating through multiple contexts. Qualitative Inquiry, 14(6), 1047-1069. doi: 10.1177/1077800408321616



Eder-Van Hook, J. L. (2013). External interim executives: A model for nonprofit leadership succession. (Doctoral dissertation). Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, CA.